Citizenship of Luxembourg can be acquired by naturalisation after 5 consecutive years of residence in Luxembourg. Applicants must pass an examination that includes a test of Luxembourgish language proficiency. Applicants must also attend some civic instruction sessions, which can be in English or Portuguese, as well as in the three languages of Luxembourg. Luxembourg allows dual citizenship and does not require new citizens to renounce their previous citizenship. Applicants must have a clean criminal record.